As a melanocortin peptide, Acthar Gel may impact immune cells, structural cells, and cytokines involved in inflammation across several rheumatic diseases1-4,*

  • Melanocortin peptides are molecules produced in response to inflammation and can contribute to controlling and balancing the inflammatory process by exerting anti-inflammatory actions1,5

Melanocortin peptides bind to and may activate receptors on various immune cells and structural cells, including T cells, B cells, and other antigen-presenting cells1,5

T cells icon

T cells4,6

  • Reduction in proinflammatory cytokines and mediators (eg, TNF-α and TNF-α–induced activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells [NF-κB])
  • Increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines and mediators
  • Increased conversion of T-helper cells to T-regulator cells
T cells icon

T cells4,6

  • Reduction in proinflammatory cytokines and mediators (eg, TNF-α and TNF-α–induced activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells [NF-κB])
  • Increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines and mediators
  • Increased conversion of T-helper cells to T-regulator cells
B cells icon

B cells4,7

  • Decreased activity, slowing the inflammatory process
B cells icon

B cells4,7

  • Decreased activity, slowing the inflammatory process
Cytokines icon

Cytokines8,9

  • Reduction in proinflammatory cytokines and mediators (eg, TNF-α and interleukin-6)
  • Increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines and mediators (eg, interleukin-10)
  • Decrease in adhesion molecules
Cytokines icon

Cytokines8,9

  • Reduction in proinflammatory cytokines and mediators (eg, TNF-α and interleukin-6)
  • Increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines and mediators (eg, interleukin-10)
  • Decrease in adhesion molecules
Macrophages icon

Macrophages10

  • Reduction in proinflammatory cytokines and mediators
  • Increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines and mediators
  • Inhibition of TNF-α release and leukocyte accumulation
Macrophages icon

Macrophages10

  • Reduction in proinflammatory cytokines and mediators
  • Increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines and mediators
  • Inhibition of TNF-α release and leukocyte accumulation
Dendritic cells icon

Dendritic cells4

  • Induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells, leading to an increase in T‑regulatory cells
  • Decrease in costimulatory molecules to decrease T cell stimulation
Dendritic cells icon

Dendritic cells4

  • Induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells, leading to an increase in T‑regulatory cells
  • Decrease in costimulatory molecules to decrease T cell stimulation
Osteoclasts icon

Osteoclasts11-13

  • Decreases osteoclastogenesis
Osteoclasts icon

Osteoclasts11-13

  • Decreases osteoclastogenesis
Monocytes icon

Monocytes14

  • Decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines
  • Upregulates the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10
Monocytes icon

Monocytes14

  • Decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines
  • Upregulates the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10
Fibroblasts icon

Fibroblasts1,12,14

  • Decreases activity
Fibroblasts icon

Fibroblasts1,12,14

  • Decreases activity

*While the exact mechanism of action of Acthar Gel is unknown, further investigation is being conducted. This information is based on nonclinical data and the relationship to clinical benefit is unknown.

05:48

Acthar Gel is believed to impact both anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory pathways1,15

Watch this video for an in-depth look at the potential MOA of Acthar Gel.